Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis, prevention and correction of malpositioned teeth and jaws. When it comes to looking after the health and appearance of your teeth, you should be confident that you’re in the most ideal possible hands. We understand that requiring orthodontic treatment can be a daunting prospect for many individuals.
We offer a variety of orthodontic treatment options, ranging from traditional, time-proven appliances to the latest innovative systems. Our dedicated, enthusiastic team are committed to providing caring, personalized orthodontic care that reflects everyone’s needs.
While orthodontics treatment procedure is generally prescribed to undergo during the adolescent years when the patient is still experiencing physical growth, the advancements in treatment options in recent years have meant more adults are able to get their ideal smile back. Nowadays, there is no certain age for orthodontic treatment. Rather your eagerness to think about your smile and reliably wear any removable devices will result in much better outcomes at any age.
Classification of malocclusions.
Skeletal classifications show the relationship of the maxilla to the mandible:
Class I: the mandible is 2-3mm posterior to the maxilla.
Class II: the mandible is more than 3mm posterior to the maxilla
Class III: the mandible is more than 3mm anterior to the maxilla.
Malocclusions are the result of a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Key factors include:
- Abnormal tooth germ position
- Delayed eruption
- Hyper & Hypodontia
- Loss of teeth
- Patient Habits (i.e. thumb sucking)
- Retention of deciduous teeth
- Dilaceration (an abnormal development in tooth shape)
- Skeletal development
- Pathology (i.e. cysts)
Incisor classification -
The British?s Standards Institute classification is used to define the incisal relationship:
Class I: the lower incisor edge occludes with, or lie immediately below, the cingulum plateau (the middle third of the palatal surface) of the upper incisors.
Class II division 1: the lower incisor edges lie posterior to the cingulum plateau of the upper incisors and there is an increase in overjet and the upper incisors are proclined or of an average inclination.
Class II division 2: the lower incisor edges lie posterior to the cingulum plateau of the upper incisors and the upper central incisors are retroclined; the overjet is usually minimal but may be increased.
Class III: the lower incisor edges lie anterior to the cingulum plateau of the upper incisors; the overjet is reduced or reversed.
Angle?s classification (Molar) is used to describe the first permanent molar relationship from normal to malocclusion.
Class I: the mesio-buccal cusp of the upper first permanent molar occludes in the buccal groove of the lower first permanent molar.
Class II: the mesio-buccal cusp of the upper first permanent molar occludes anterior to the buccal groove of the lower first permanent molar.
Class III: the mesio-buccal cusp of the upper first permanent molar occludes posterior to the buccal groove of the lower first permanent molar.
Other types of dental malocclusions can include.
Overjet:the horizontal distance between the labial surface of the lower incisors and the upper incisal edge; the normal measurement is 2-3mm.
Overbite:the vertical distance between the upper and lower incisal edges. Normal is one-third to two-thirds overlap of the upper incisor to the lower incisor. An incomplete overbite is when the lower incisors do not occlude with the opposing upper incisors or the palatal mucosa when the buccal segment teeth are in occlusion.
Crossbite:A deviation from the normal bucco-lingual relationship. These can either be anterior or posterior but also unilateral or bilateral. Crossbites can be further broken down into
Buccal crossbites:the buccal cusps of the lower premolars or molars occlude buccally to the buccal cusps of the upper premolars or molars.
Lingual crossbites:the buccal cusps of the lower molars occlude lingually to the lingual cusps of the upper molars.
Anterior open bite:there is no vertical overlap of the incisors when the buccal segment teeth are in occlusion.
Posterior open bite:when the teeth are in occlusion there is a space between the upper and lower posterior teeth.
Crowding occurs when one or more teeth do not have enough room to align within the arch. Crowding can be caused by a wide range of factors.
Delayed eruption -Delayed eruption results in adjacent teeth drifting and/ or tilting resulting in a loss of arch space. A similar effect is seen in the early loss of deciduous teeth.
Developmental crowding of lower incisors -Inter-canine growth increases up to the age of 12?13 years, followed by a gradual diminution throughout adult life. This reduction is arch size is considered a developmental phenomenon
Early loss of deciduous teeth -Whether due to caries, premature exfoliation or planned extraction ? the early loss of deciduous teeth results in an increase in severity of pre-existing crowding. When crowding is present the remaining teeth will drift or tilt into the free space provided. The younger the patient is when the tooth is lost and the earlier in development the adjacent teeth are the more serve the effect.
Hyperdontia -Hyperdontia is the congenital condition of having supernumerary teeth. Hyperdontia can results in crowding due to an increased number of teeth within the arch.
Skeletal - The skeletal base, mainly controlled be genetics, governs the overall shape, size and relationship of the Maxilla and mandible.
Soft tissue & patient habits -The forces exerted by the cheeks, tongue, lips and patient habits all play a role in the alignment of the teeth.
Whether you’re thinking conventional braces or an option to braces, only an orthodontist has the training, experience and master information to have the capacity to offer you the full suite of treatment choices and give you and your child the confidence that you’re in the best hands.